Sleep difficulties among adolescents has been considered a global problem, and is highly escalating (Chung and Cheung, 2008, Loessl et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2005). Sleep difficulties have been associated with the duration of sleep, quality of sleep, as well as daytime sleeping (Alicia M Moran, 2012, Gradisar et al., 2011, Dewald et al., 2010). The recommended sleeping duration for adolescents is about 8 hours, with less than that resulting in various negative outcomes (Park, 2011). Several factors have been linked to sleeping pattern among adolescents and range from psychological, social, physiological, as well as environmental aspects (Alicia M Moran, 2012). A number of these aspects are regarded a biological sleep stage delay (Tarokh et al., 2010), commencing at starting duration of schools (Short et al., 2013, Wolfson et al., 2007), with Saudi lifestyle factors influencing the quality of sleep. These factors are inclusive of physical activity, high screen time, as well as minimized breakfast intake (Al-Hazzaa et al., 2014b) (Bawazeer et al., 2009).
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Disturbed sleep has also been linked to elevated expression of markers of cardiovascular risk (Narang et al., 2012), substance use/abuse (Gromov and Gromov, 2009), meagre mental health(Kaneita et al., 2007), and Short sleeping duration will impact impaired insulin resistance (Matthews et al., 2012), as well as poor academic performance(Chung and Cheung, 2008, Curcio et al., 2006)., high frequency of depression (Roberts and Duong, 2013) and anxiety (Coulombe et al., 2011), poor mental health (Kaneita et al., 2007), poor school performance (Dewald et al., 2010), and an increase in risky behaviour (Eric O Johnson, 2001). In addition, excessive daytime sleepiness has been linked to poor school achievement(Dewald et al., 2010), fatigability, pain intolerance, decreased immune functioning as well as emotional consequences such as irritability, depression, and decreased pleasure in work and social activities (Liu et al., 2005). In accordance with (Merdad et al., 2014), two thirds of the students have demonstrated poor levels of sleep quality. While sleep behaviours among adolescents in Saudi appear identical to those of the rest of the globe as far as average sleeping duration is concerned, they have demonstrated an increased level of sleep quality and an enhanced delay in weekend sleep duration and waking time (BaHammam et al., 2006). Another study conducted back in 2014 was associated with minimized sleeping duration due to increased BMI among Saudi adolescents (Al-Hazzaa, 2014). With reference to another cross sectional study conducted in Saudi by examining a total of 2852 adolescents, with 51.7 being female participants, the researchers considered the use of a multistage stratified cluster sampling. The results indicated a correlation between increased BMI and sleep reduction among adolescent subjects.
This study has sufficiently engaged a comprehensive assessment on the relationship of obesity to physical activity, self-esteem and sleeping quality during adolescent period on Saudi Arabia. In this study, two key hormones have been argued to show significance in appetite regulation (Laptin and ghrelin), whose purpose is evident in short sleep duration as well as increased BMI. On sleep deprivation, there is a correlation with minimized leptin and escalated levels of ghrelin which increases an individual’s appetite and eventually the subject adds more weight (Taheri et al., 2004, Pejovic et al., 2010). On the other hand, sleep limitation has been linked to escalating appetite and hunger, particularly for high carbohydrate food (Spiegel et al., 2004). Lastly, decreased sleep durations have been associated with irregular eating habits, with the subjects preferring snacking behaviours between meals (Al-Disi et al., 2010).